However Khalid now committed his final reserves under Yazid (who were defending the camp) into the fray, desperate to end the long hours of bloodshed of this prolonged battle. Richard Holmes. [3], The Byzantines were led by Heraclius' brother Theodore, as well as by a figure called "Artabun" or "Wardan" in the Muslim sources, evidently a corruption of the Armenian name Vardan. The details of this battle are mostly known through Muslim sources, such as the ninth-century historian al-Waqidi. In the third week of July 634, the Rashidun army marched from Busra. I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like. Khalid ibn al-Walid wrote to all commanders to march at once and concentrate at Ajnadayn. [6] The site is placed by the Muslim literary sources somewhere between Ramla and Bayt Jibrin (modern Beit Guvrin), both in modern Israel, but is otherwise unattested by any geographer of the period. This victory led to the total Muslim conquest of Palestine and Syria, the latter soon to become the centre of Islamic civilization (before Baghdad). In mid-July 634, the Syrian town of Bosra fell to the Muslim army of Khalid ibn al-Walid and his reinforcements. Based on the region's topography, the historian N. A. Miednikoff suggested that the battle was fought on the Wadi al-Samt river, where lies the twin village of al-Jannaba. (Login required), Battle of Bosra — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Battle of Bosra partof=Byzantine Arab Wars and Campaigns of Khalid ibn al Walid Roman Theater in Bosra caption= date=June July 634 place=Bosra, Syria result=Muslim victory combatant1=Rashidun Caliphate… …   Wikipedia, Battle of Iron bridge — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Battle of Iron Bridge partof=Byzantine Arab Wars and Campaigns of Khalid ibn al Walid caption=The River Orontes,Antioch, the battle was fought near this river . [7] The high number of deaths served to reinvigorate the sense of religious martyrdom among the nascent Muslim community, while the high proportion of Meccan deaths served as a useful counterbalance to the influence of the Medinan Ansar. The Byzantines, at this time, still thought they were dealing with local Arab bandits, so organized their defence only with local troops. Oxford University Press, 2001. Khalid retorted by offering conversion to Islam, the payment of jizyah (tax), or a fight. Ed. The result of the battle was a decisive Muslim victory. The Battle of Ajnadayn (Arabic: معركة أجنادين ‎‎) was fought in July or August 634 (Jumada I or II, 13 AH), in an unknown location close to Beit Guvrin in present-day Israel; it was the first major pitched battle between the Byzantine (Roman) Empire and the army of the Arab Rashidun Caliphate. Regarding the primary sources, there is an absence of any of Byzantine provenance; possibly, according to Walter Kaegi, because what Byzantine material exists may conflate the battle with other Byzantine defeats, such as Dathin and Yarmouk. The next day, Vardan offered a parley with the goal of ambushing the Rashiduns, but his plan failed and he was instead killed by Jarrah. The 10 Romans emerged and raced towards him. The result of the battle was a decisive Muslim victory. Ed. However, the Muslim warrior Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah marched directly into the battle with a Roman shield and shouted his war cry, leading his entourage of champions to slay several Roman elite warriors and two generals. The Roman line finally collapsed under the weight of this final push. As these duels were still being fought, Khalid ordered a general attack. The result of the battle was a decisive Muslim victory. allegiance= Rashidun Caliphate commands= nickname= The Sword of… …   Wikipedia, Rashidun Caliphate — Infobox Former Country native name = الخلافة الراشدية conventional long name = Rashidun Caliphate common name = Rashidun continent = Afroasia region = Middle East status = Empire government type = Caliphate event start = year start = 632 event… …   Wikipedia, We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. But the Muslims stood firm and did not return fire as ordered; the Roman slingers and archers were out of range of the Muslim's archers. The Battle of Ajnadayn is perhaps the best example of this form of psychological warfare. The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. The Byzantine emperor Heraclius, who was in Emesa, responded by sending his brother Theodore and his Armenian general Vardan south towards Ajnadayn, 25 miles southeast of Jerusalem, where they began to gather a large army. Theodorus was killed "apparently by the fearsome Zarrar". The whole of Palestine was thus left open to Muslim raids, especially in the interior parts away from the coastal towns. The burgeoning Rashidun army thus met their Byzantine opponents at battle at Ajnadayn. Historica Wiki is a FANDOM Games Community. Oxford Reference Online. combatant1=Eastern Roman Empirecombatant2=Rashidun Caliphatecommander1=Vardan (Governor of Emesa) Unknown Cubicularius Theodoruscommander2=Khalid ibn al-Walid Amr Ibn al-As Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah Shurahbil Yazid ibn Abu Sufyanstrength1=9,000-10,000 [D. Nicolle, "Yarmuk 636 AD - The Muslim Conquest of Syria", p. 43] (Muslim sources: 90,000 - 100,000 [Muslim sources such as Al-Waqidi placed the army's strength at around 90,000 - 100,000, Edward Gibbon copied these numbers and put them at around 80,000. The Romans may have been commanded by the Emperor's brother … Hotly pursued by the Byzantines, Khalid stopped his advance at the Yarmouk River and finally gave battle.In the Battle of Yarmuk, Khalid Ibn al-Walid once again fought the Romans, this time under the command of Theodore the Sacellarius and Baänes. The Byzantine auxiliary missile units began the battle by raining arrows and stones on the Muslims, and the Muslims were unable to respond to the Byzantines' showers. Mu'adh ibn Jabal commanded the Muslim centre; Sa'id Ibn 'Amir the left; and ‘Abd ar-Rahman, son of the Caliph Abu Bakr, the right. "The Sword of Allah: Khalid bin al-Waleed, His Life and Campaigns", [http://www.swordofallah.com/html/bookchapter29page1.htm Battle of Ajnadein] . WikiMatrix. Theodorus invited Khalid for a duel; without drawing his sword, he sprang at Khalid and held him, at the same time shouting for 10 Romans to come to his aid. The fight was ferocious, and continued until the sun set. We have created a browser extension. [2][8] The Muslim sources name him as the patrikios (commander) of Emesa, which was the major Byzantine base of operations in Syria in the early period of the Muslim conquests. You could also do it yourself at any point in time. Publishing House. Khalid forthwith launched his cavalry in several regiments to pursue the enemy on all three routes, and at the hands of this cavalry the Byzantine army suffered even more casualties than in the two days of fighting on the plain of Ajnadayn.

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