The verb πωρόω rendered to harden, Mark 6:52; Mark 8:17; John 12:40, and in all these passages it is used of the heart. It is inexcusable because the evidence for God"s existence is so abundant and so clear (Romans 1:20; Psalms 19:1), the existence of God is so logical (Acts 17:22-30), and God"s revelation to mankind is so accessible (Matthew 28:19-20). Greek. Man was so created that the root of his perfection is in God. τ. ζ. τ. θ. BibliographyBeza, Theodore. See Ephesians 1:18. alienated. Let people “feel” right toward God, and they will soon “think” right; let the heart be pure, and the understanding will be clear. What the life given by God is, we know by our Lord’s own words (John 17:3), “This is the life eternal, to know Thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom Thou has sent.” So far as the understanding is concerned, this alienation signifies the loss of the central light of Truth in God, and with it the loss, partial or complete, of the vision of other truths in their right proportion and harmony. Because of the ignorance, etc. When once that world is revealed to us our whole conception of human duty and of human destiny is changed. Explicit statement of the cause of their estrangement, which was implicitly given in the ἐσκοτωμένοι. D.), It’s ignorance of the price of pearls that makes the idiot slight them. And what was the event? Win.-Moult., p. 233), = “the life that comes from God,” the spiritual life communicated by God. Having the understanding darkened,.... Not that the natural faculty of the understanding is lost in men, nor the understanding in things natural and civil, and which is quick enough, especially in things that are evil; but in things spiritual it is very dark and ignorant, as about the nature and perfections of God, his holiness and righteousness; about sin and the consequences of it; about Christ, his person, office, and work, and salvation by him; about the Spirit, and his work of grace upon the soul; and about the Scripture, and the doctrines contained in it; and so it came to be by sin: the understanding of man was at first filled both with natural and divine knowledge; but man was not content with this, and being ambitious of more, even of being as God, lost what he had; for on account of his sin he was banished from the divine presence, which brought not only a darkness upon him, but upon all his posterity; and which is increased by personal iniquity, and oftentimes by Satan the god of this world, who blinds the minds of men; and sometimes men are given up in just judgment by God, to a judicial blindness and hardness of heart; and which issues in utter darkness, in blackness of darkness for evermore: being alienated from the life of God; not that which God lives in himself, but that which he lives in his people; nor that natural life which men receive from him, but a spiritual life, a life of grace, faith and holiness; and which may be called the life of God, because it is infused by the Spirit of God, and the word of God is the means of it, and it is supported and secured by the power of God, and is according to the will of God, and is directed to his glory: now wicked and unconverted men are alienated from this life; they are estranged from God the fountain of it; and go astray from the law, the rule of an holy life; and are entirely destitute of a principle of life, from whence men can only act and are utterly unacquainted with the pleasures and sweetness of the life of faith and holiness; nor do they approve of such a life, but have the utmost aversion to it: through the ignorance that is in them; every unregenerate man is an ignorant man, and especially the Gentiles were very ignorant of God, and of divine things; ignorance is natural to men, it comes by sin, and is itself sinful, and is sometimes the punishment of sin, and also the cause of it, as here of alienation from the life of God; for where is ignorance of God, there can be no desire after him, no communion with him, no faith in him, had dependence on him; no true worship of him, or living according to his will, and to his glory: and this ignorance is. About moral discipline he thinks very little. attach it to the former clause, and take it to be a statement of the cause of the ἄγνοια. It follows, too, that as man has debased his “understanding” by sin, it is needful to make an exertion to elevate it again: and hence a large part of the efforts to save people must consist in patient “instruction.” Hence, the necessity of schools at missionary stations. That in turn rests on insensitivity to God and His ways (cf. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/ephesians-4.html. ix. Were two infants in like manner to be brought up from the womb without being instructed in any religion, there is little room to doubt but (unless the grace of God interposed) the event would be just the same. BibliographyClarke, Adam. τῆς καρδίας virtually synonymous with διάνοια, the seat of moral illumination; cf. BibliographyTrapp, John. They can"t understand, and they can"t live like God wants them to live - rather plain to me - they are incapable of it - impossible - they don"t know God, they can"t understand God and they can"t live a life that is pleasing to God - no surprise when you understand this passage. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/ephesians-4.html. Darkness is the condition of the Gentile world apart from Christ; cf. This verse at once explains and confirms the preceding statement. BibliographyIce, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Ephesians 4:18". People outside of Christ have absolutely no spiritual life. "The life of God," means the life of which God is the author. "Commentary on Ephesians 4:18". BibliographyMeyer, Heinrich. διανοίᾳ, explained under Ephesians 2:3 and Ephesians 1:18, is the dative expressive of sphere. "Commentary on Ephesians 4:18". The participles, darkened, alienated, take for granted, that the Gentiles, before they had revolted from the faith of their fathers, nay rather before Adam’s fall, had been partakers of light and life; comp.

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