Habits: Both the latin pinetorum and another common name, the pine vole, refer to a habitat this rodent occupies only in the Southeast. Habitat of the Vole. 2014). Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough. Société de la faune et des parcs du Québec. Journal of Mammalogy 50: 777-784. comm. The woodland vole is widely distributed in the southeastern United States in a variety of wooded and partially open habitats (Webster et al. Litters range in size from 1-8 (usually 2-4) young. Like many short-lived species, Woodland Voles are prolific breeders, having multiple litters per year (average lifespan is 3-6 months; COSEWIC 2010). Revisit all observations in Canada to determine if they are extant or historical and if appropriate habitat still exists in those areas. American Midland Naturalist 104: 39-46. The planning process based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. 3.1 Encourage studies that determine the home range size and the use of various habitats within the home ranges of the Woodland Vole to help mitigate the effects of forest fragmentation on the species. Major foods include roots, tubers, sprouts, bark, stems, leaves, nuts, berries, and fruit. Johns Hopkins Press: Baltimore, 1964. Females may have several litters in a year. 1999. Habitat The woodland vole occurs in deciduous woodlands with loose sandy soils, deep humus, and heavy leaf litter. (On-line). Woodland Voles are habitat generalist species with an affinity towards forests with nearby open habitat (i.e., edge habitat). Development of this management plan was facilitated by Allison Foran (Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service – Ontario). Tail:  0.6 - 1.0 inches Vegetation type and cover are both influential to species distribution. The Quebec and Ontario populations are separated by large distances, however the area in between has not been surveyed but does contain potentially suitable habitat for the species. Clear-cut logging will result in an increase in light penetration and a reduction in soil moisture. In the United States, Woodland Voles are considered an orchard pest. There are few habitats that voles cannot survive in. They weigh between 14 and 37 g. Males and females look alike. Isolated populations in eastern Texas are remnants of a former southwestern distribution, as revealed by cave samples dating from the Pleistocene Epoch (2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). Broad Strategies and Conservation Measures, 6.1 Actions Already Completed or Currently Underway, Appendix A: Effects on the Environment and Other Species, Appendix B: Subnational conservation ranks for the Woodland Vole, Accord for the Protection of Species at Risk (1996), Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, Federal Sustainable Development Strategy's, Niagara Escarpment Planning and Development Act, Urban development, agricultural intensification, and forest harvesting. Most of the habitat information available for Woodland Voles is from the United States where they seem to be a habitat generalist, occupying a range of habitats including heavy woods, damp bogs, and cultivated lawns (COSEWIC 2010). 2004); however the males may disperse even further during the breeding season to find a suitable mate (Fitzgerald and Madison 1983). •Woodland Voles live in colonies. This may be due to the increased energy demand in low temperatures, despite behavioural changes to conserve heat and energy such as limiting above ground exposure and communal huddling (Bowman et al. Hamilton, W.J., Jr. 1938. Inexact Numeric Rank (G/N/S#? During a severe winter woodland voles may cause damage to trees. Polyakov. Canadian Council on Ecological Areas (CCEA). Less than 2% of the species’ global range is within Canada, where the Woodland Vole is considered nationally VulnerableFootnote6 (N3) and the subnational conservation status is Vulnerable (S3) in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec, however, there is uncertainty of the status in Ontario (S3?Footnote7). Inventory and monitoring activities will have little or no negative effect on other species and may support surveys for other small mammal species and incidental sightings of non-target species. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36(4): 845–854. Low priority conservation measures will likely have an indirect or gradual influence on reaching the management objective, but are considered important contributions to the knowledge base and/or public involvement and acceptance of the species. In other species, however, such as the meadow vole which much more often bothers homeowners and farmers, the males are promiscuous and leave the female’s side to go mate again as quickly as possible. Conservation of the Woodland Vole is also likely to benefit the environment, including a number of species at risk in Ontario and Quebec (Appendix A). Northeastern Naturalist 18(4): 509-520. Updates? Canadian Journal of Forest Research 42: 375-381. BioKIDS is sponsored in part by the Interagency Education Research Initiative. The Woodland Vole is found only in North America, ranging from the southern United States along the Gulf of Mexico to the Great Lakes in southern Ontario and Lake St-Pierre in southern Quebec, and from Nebraska and Texas to the Atlantic Coast (COSEWIC 2010, NatureServe 2013a; Figure 1). comm. To the extent possible, it has been prepared in cooperation with the provinces of Ontario (Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry) and Quebec (Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs du Québec). Best Practices Guide to Natural Heritage Systems Planning. Woodland Voles are most common in habitat with dense herbaceous vegetation, which is used for food and cover (Getz 1985). It is anticipated that conservation measures for the Woodland Vole should lead to the conservation of additional species that use forest and edge habitats, as well as species that prey on the Woodland Vole. Bernier. Conservation Biology 21(4): 997–1008. Soil moisture was also found to be important, as Woodland Voles are most often associated with well-drained soils (COSEWIC 2010). 2007), and decreasing diversity and abundance of tree seedlings and herbaceous plants (WDNR 2013, Sackett et al. The Southern Bog Lemming has a tail that is similar in length and fur that is also similar in colour to the Woodland Vole.


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